A gentle introduction to the highly sophisticated world of discrete mathematics, Mathematical Problems and Proofs presents topics ranging from elementary definitions and theorems to advanced topics -- such as cardinal numbers, generating functions, properties of Fibonacci numbers, and Euclidean algorithm. This excellent primer illustrates more than 150 solutions and proofs, thoroughly explained in clear language. The generous historical references and anecdotes interspersed throughout the text create interesting intermissions that will fuel readers' eagerness to inquire further about the topics and some of our greatest mathematicians. The author guides readers through the process of solving enigmatic proofs and problems, and assists them in making the transition from problem solving to theorem proving.

What is the essence of the similarity between forests in a graph and linearly independent sets of columns in a matrix? Why does the greedy algorithm produce a spanning tree of minimum weight in a connected graph? Is it possible to test in polynomial time whether a matrix is totally unimodular? These questions form the basis of Matroid theory. The study of matroids is a branch of discrete mathematics with basic links to graphs, lattices, codes, transversals, and projective geometries. Matroids are of fundamental importance in combinatorial optimization and their applications extend into electrical engineering and statics. This book falls into two parts: the first provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of matroid theory, while the second treats more advanced topics. The book contains over five hundred exercises and includes, for the first time in one place, short proofs of all but one of the major theorems in the subject. The final chapter lists sixty unsolved problems and describes progress towards their solutions.

Developed from the authors’ introductory combinatorics course, this book focuses on a branch of mathematics which plays a crucial role in computer science. Combinatorial methods provide many analytical tools used for determining the expected performance of computer algorithms. Elementary subjects such as combinations and permutations, and mathematical tools such as generating functions and Pólya’s Theory of Counting, are covered, as are analyses of specific problems such as Ramsey Theory, matchings, and Hamiltonian and Eulerian paths.

Continued fractions, studied since Ancient Greece, only became a powerful tool in the eighteenth century, in the hands of the great mathematician Euler. This book tells how Euler introduced the idea of orthogonal polynomials and combined the two subjects, and how Brouncker's formula of 1655 can be derived from Euler's efforts in Special Functions and Orthogonal Polynomials. The most interesting applications of this work are discussed, including the great Markoff's Theorem on the Lagrange spectrum, Abel's Theorem on integration in finite terms, Chebyshev's Theory of Orthogonal Polynomials, and very recent advances in Orthogonal Polynomials on the unit circle. As continued fractions become more important again, in part due to their use in finding algorithms in approximation theory, this timely book revives the approach of Wallis, Brouncker and Euler and illustrates the continuing significance of their influence. A translation of Euler’s famous paper ‘Continued Fractions, Observation’ is included as an Addendum. ? Considers the modern state of continued fractions and orthogonal polynomials from Euler's point of view, giving a full account of his work on the subject ? Outlines Brouncker's formula; Euler's discoveries of the Gamma and Beta functions; Markoff's Theorem on the Lagrange spectrum and its relation with Jean Bernoulli sequences; Brouncker's method as a solution to Fermat’s question on Pell's equation ? Contains the first English translation of Euler's ‘Continued Fractions, Observation’, 1739, with comments relating it to Brouncker's proof

Professor Rogers has written this economical and logical exposition of the theory of packing and covering at a time when the simplest general results are known and future progress seems likely to depend on detailed and complicated technical developments. The book treats mainly problems in n-dimensional space, where n is larger than 3. The approach is quantative and many estimates for packing and covering densities are obtained. The introduction gives a historical outline of the subject, stating results without proof, and the succeeding chapters contain a systematic account of the general results and their derivation. Some of the results have immediate applications in the theory of numbers, in analysis and in other branches of mathematics, while the quantative approach may well prove to be of increasing importance for further developments.

Permutation group algorithms are indispensable in the proofs of many deep results, including the construction and study of sporadic finite simple groups. This work describes the theory behind permutation group algorithms, up to the most recent developments based on the classification of finite simple groups. Rigorous complexity estimates, implementation hints, and advanced exercises are included throughout. The central theme is the description of nearly linear time algorithms, which are extremely fast both in terms of asymptotic analysis and of practical running time. The book fills a significant gap in the symbolic computation literature for readers interested in using computers in group theory.

Permutation groups are one of the oldest topics in algebra. Their study has recently been revolutionized by new developments, particularly the Classification of Finite Simple Groups, but also relations with logic and combinatorics, and importantly, computer algebra systems have been introduced that can deal with large permutation groups. This text summarizes these developments, including an introduction to relevant computer algebra systems, sketch proofs of major theorems, and many examples of applying the Classification of Finite Simple Groups. It is aimed at beginning graduate students and experts in other areas, and grew from a short course at the EIDMA institute in Eindhoven.

Text concerned with combinatorial aspects arising in the theory of exactly solvable models and representation theory. Presents new result and exciting ideas from three viewpoints of research: representation theory, integrable models, and combinatorics. DLC: Combinatorial analysis--Congresses.